The Wartime Memories of Ron Core

Ron Core during his interview

Ronald Core was born in Ancoats, in central Manchester, on 21 February 1931. His mother’s surname was Jackson. He had two sisters, sadly no longer with us.

His dad served in the 1st WW, but was injured and came home to serve in the Labour Corp.

Ron was called up after the War for National Service.

This transcript records his memories before and during World War 2 together with other experiences.

The transcript and the video are about 41 minutes long.

Recorded in Audenshaw, Tameside, 20th April 2018.

[Pauses indicated by ….]

Time codes on film indicated by Hour:Minute:Second for ease of reference between transcript and film on YouTube.

Transcript: –

Michael: Now Ron, if I may, I’m going to start right back at the beginning because you were born in 1931 ….

Ron: Yes ….

Michael: What do you remember of your early childhood?

Ron: Early childhood, yes …. Well, of course, my early childhood was spent …. sort of …. hardly …. Well, we went to school, of course …. but …. just …. then, that was …. hidden at Longsight …. and then, of the evening, it was one of these …. big …. large schools …. a lot of them were, but …. I went to that and then …. at night time, it was used as an air raid shelter …. in the cellars downstairs … and so, we used to walk through the [probably a place name], so it wasn’t far for us to walk …. and my mother used to put the …. some cushions on our heads …. to stop the bombs …. and that was …. [laughing] …. and then …. and so, the …. we did that as a nightly procedure …. and take these cushions, so that we were safe from the bombs …. and …. then …. from there, we’d sleep in the shelters …. they been the cellars of one of the schools …. one of these big schools …. and …. council school …. so, we did that on a daily basis, and I remember …. the food being very good …. like in, like in the food …. but of course, we’d …. only 9 …. years old …. anything you eat is always good …. and so we had a lot of meat and potato pie and …. all the rest, I don’t know how housewives went on …. and …. I remember when the …. jumped a bit now …. when the first bananas arrived …. and they got bananas …. so, that was …. we were still in Longsight and that was great ….

We had …. we didn’t take much notice of what was happening in the War …. but …. in the War, we had …. a girl f…. a girlfriend …. she was only 11 …. and she lived in St John’s road …. same as we did, in Longsight …. and …. and she showed us ones where …. she …. they had, their house had been bombed …. and it had been, you know, destroyed …. to an extent …. and she was dug out …. and she showed us a scar …. of where the bricks had fallen on her legs …. and there was one leg …. that was sort of …. you know, where the bricks had fallen on it …. and it had gouged a big piece of flesh from her thigh …. yes, and …. it was very very deep but it …. and of course, it …. she was never a cripple …. she was all right and ….

She will be well into retirement now, I should imagine …. and, so, you see …. you know, those sort of things, when you look back …. You know, the War …. was …. at home …. really, in a sense, wasn’t it?

And …. my wife, of course, she had …. a brother killed in the War, at the end of the War …. and so …. these sort of things …. So, when they …. we have these medals as you see …. and …. so, the …. so, he had these medals …. that my wife sent for …. and he had those, so …. yes, so they …. he was killed, of course, yes ….

Michael: Ron, do you remember the actual outbreak of War?

Ron: The what?

Michael: The outbreak of War …. Do you remember when it actually started?

Ron: No, but I have newspapers relevant to those, if you want to look at them some time ….

Michael: Did you mention to me that you went to Derbyshire for a while?

Ron: Yes, I was …. I was evac…. evacuation …. we didn’t move for very long …. and …. but it was Great Hucklow which is near Leek and places like that. So, I didn’t care for it …. and my mother then …. was transferred after a couple of weeks …. to …. I remember, he was a policeman …. but we went to ….. you know, we were boarded there for, you know, something like …. 4 weeks, I think …. but …. I always say, there we were in the middle of the Blitz …. and there was nothing like that where we were in Great Hucklow …. and my mother sent for us …. you know …. to go home …. and live at home …. and I thought, there’s more chance of us being killed in Beswick …. and it was hard to think the reason she sent for us …. she thought she had had enough of three kids.

Michael: [Laughing] So, were there three of you that went to Derbyshire?

Ron: I had a …. I am not sure, but I think so, I think so, yes ….

Michael: Because, you had …. or had sisters?

Ron: Two sisters, they both emigrated to Australia ….

Michael: Oh yes ….

Ron: and Adelaide …. and of course, being sisters …. you get one who is does travelling, and it is not long before the other sister …. goes as well ….

Michael:  Yes ….

Ron: and so that was nice, and they had …. quite a nice life there …. in Adelaide. The …. other than the ship …. I suppose this happens now …. the ship …. that they were on …. docked at Perth …. And, so, they didn’t really like Perth …. and so, they moved from their …. and then went to Adelaide …. Well, Adelaide, as you probably know …. is a very sort of garden sort of city …. lovely …. and so, a lot of people don’t like it …. I remember …. reading an article in a paper by …. a reporter ….

He, he was based in …. Perth …. and they said …. “Oh, we are going to Adelaide for today ….” and …. it was a plane full of reporters …. and they all looked at each other and thought …. “A full day in Adelaide …. we’ll be bored to tears ….” [laughing] …. And yet, I believe it’s a lovely city ….

Michael: I am sure it is …. Coming back to the War ….

Ron: Yes ….

Michael: You mentioned that your mother used to put cushions on your heads during air raids ….

Ron: Yes, she did ….

Michael: Did you have a shelter that you would go in?

Ron: Oh yes, because it was one of those rather large schools …. Nothing posh, or anything like that, just …. a normal school, but it was large …. and …. so, it had basements …. and so, our mother used to put cushions …. I think she had only cushions, she was so poor …. and anyhow, she said “Put this on your heads ….” and to stop the bombs …. [laughing] ….

Michael: I don’t think that would have had much effect …. you didn’t use an Anderson shelter or anything like that?

Ron: …. No, I don’t remember the Anderson shelter …. but I remember them building shelters in the streets ….

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: And that’s where …. I …. so, about my War wound which is …. I fell over once and …. had a bit of …. you know, this …. disagreement at home …. people live close together in families …. and I had 2 uncles next door but …. one …. to us …. and then another uncle, across the road …. so …. I said “I am leaving home, I am going to live with my Uncle Jim ….” which was just across the road …. and they were building these air raid shelters …. there …. and of course, I fell over the air raid shelter …. and …. and cut my knee ….

Michael: So, you legitimately have a war wound ….

Ron: I did have a war wound ….

Michael: You might not have been in the Forces at that time …. yes ….

Ron: Not any pension or anything like that ….

Michael: No ….

Ron: but it is there, and …. so …. Yes …. that was …. that was my expiation of the War, so my mother …. sort of …. probably …. you know, she didn’t leave us very long in Derbyshire ….

Michael: No ….

Ron: And, you know, mothers tend to be like that …. and …. if you are unhappy where you are …. they bring you home [laughing] …. well, they did then …. following on to the bombs to land ….

00:09:58

Michael: So, you were there only a month …. and then, you came home …. what other things do you remember?

Were there any sort of incidents? Did you actually see any bombs dropping or anything like that?

Ron: No, we never saw …. there were aircraft nearly every night ….

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: And then this …. tell us what they were …. you know, they were obviously German …. Most German aircraft, you can tell by …. and there was a …. there is a particular drone …. with the German aircraft, you know, they …. the ….. the sort of …. they were four engine or two engine, I don’t know …. but I suppose there was a difference between the two ….

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: and the notes of the engines, you see …. and of course, they were only young lads as well ….

Michael: Quite ….

Ron: You know …. and, you know, you think back …. and …. you think they were only teenagers and …. or young men …. in these Heinkels …. whatever they were ….

Michael: Yes, yes ….

Ron: Yes, but of course …. if anybody, if any of them …. sort of were shot down …. and lived …. well, they were ill-treated, I know that ….

Michael: Do you remember ack ack guns and things like that going off?

Ron: I don’t remember them, no ….

Michael: No, maybe there weren’t any near here ….

Ron: There was so, so much …. noise going on all the time ….

Michael: Yes, yes ….

Ron: I suppose …. We did go round the following day, after the air raids …. looking for shrapnel in the streets ….

Michael: I was going to come onto that, I mean, I know lots of people used to collect shrapnel ….

Ron: Yes ….

Michael: And what did you do with the shrapnel once you had got it?

Ron: We just kept it, you know, we just kept it …. and …. we didn’t know what it was, and of course …. it could have been just shrapnel, shrapnel off an aircraft, it could have been anything, couldn’t it? Yes ….

Michael: Absolutely, yes …. yes ….

Ron: I was reading an article …. not so long ago about a …. and it was about this …. British airman, who, it was in the Manchester Evening News …. and there was two of them …. and they …. took …. had been told about these two …. German aircraft …. flying home ….

Michael: Oh, yes ….

Ron: They’d been …. and so, they were flying home …. and they said “If you …. ” They were in Spitfires, you see …. and they were told, “If you …. you haven’t got much petrol but you won’t need much …. because they are headed for Germany …. You’ll see the ….”

And there they were, and they shot them both down …. and …. you know …. I think back …. up to now, and I think …. that was an awful thing to happen, wasn’t it? …. I mean, they were probably …. you know, glorified for it and probably were, probably decorated …. that they shot both the aircraft down …. during the War …. but …. and, of course …. the same thing was happening to our aircraft in …. and when you think of …. let’s say …. several hundred bomber raids …. or thousands, towards the end of the War …. 1945, I suppose …. 46 …. the bomber raids over Germany …. were absolutely horrendous …. because they were …. they were sort of carpet bombing …. We, we were pleased about that …. the carpet bombing …. was sort of …. pick a …. particularly windy night …. and fly over there, because then …. they dropped the incendiary bombs …. because the wind then, drives the flames ….

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: …. you know, over an inhabited area …. and you think …. it’s a terrible thing, war, isn’t?

Michael: I agree ….

Ron: And I, I think it is, absolutely dreadful …. to think that would happen to …. young people …. younger …. whether they were children …. or whether they were English or …. French or anyone ….

Michael: Because they said about the First World War …. that it was the War to end all wars ….

Ron: They did ….

Michael: and 20 years later, there was another one ….

Ron: That’s right, yes …. my …. I don’t know whether we are jumping the gun a bit now, but I had a …. an uncle …. one of my uncles was called Uncle Tom …. Now, Uncle Tom, he lived in Ancoats …. and …. and then there were two in Beswick …. and Uncle Tom became a pilo…. ….. an observer …. in the Air …. in the Corps …. something, it changed its name to the Royal Air Force …. after about …. 1940 something …. and …. but …. but Uncle Tom …. was one of the educated ones ….

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: And …. He …. was …. an observer …. in the, they had a pilot and an observer in the plane …. and …. just 2 crew …. and so, he did see …. fly some missions …. Uncle Tom did ….

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: He became a civil servant, and …. my Mum said to me …. she said, “Go and see Uncle Tom …. he’s a civil servant in Stockport and he will get you deferred for the Army.” No, it wasn’t my uncle, it was the man I worked for, he said he will “get you deferred ….” So, I went to see Uncle Tom …. …. ….. he …. “People, relatives only come to see me when they want something ….” and then I went, and he said, “Yes, I’ll do what I ….” and he did get me deferred, I was 18 at the time ….   and I was deferred to …. till I was 21 ….

Michael: Right, but you still had to do your National Service?

Ron: Oh, yes ….

Michael: Tell me about that, what, what was it, I mean, you went …. you must have, if you were 21, so …. That was in 1952, presumably …. if you went into the National Service ….

Ron: Yes …. yes ….

Michael: What was that like?

Ron: Well …. It was …. It was very, very, very good and I was very lucky, and I was sent to a …. we landed in Egypt and …. the following day we were distributed to various units and I was being interviewed by an officer …. and they said, he said “Would you like to …. you seem to have the qualifications.” He said, “Would you like to join the military police?”

So, I said “Well, I don’t really know anything about it”, but I said, “I know me boss …. (who I was working for at the time) …. served for six years in …. India at the end of, you know, the war time”. So, he said “We’ll go see what your boss says about it”. So, I went to see John, as he was, and he said “Jump at it! It will be cushy!” [He seems to have stepped back in time here for a while as his boss, John was not in Egypt at the time.]

And he said …. So, as it was, because …. I’d been going to a school in Manchester and a college, called the College of Commerce …. I wanted to go to the Art School …. and me Mum said, “Oh”, she said, “you’d be coming from a place like Ancoats, mentioning an Art School” …. She said, “All you were doing was, just, drawing pictures all the time” and it was nothing like that. The Art School as you know is architecture …. all these other sort of professions …. So, I should have gone there but I didn’t.

And …. and then, my Mum didn’t want me to go there, my Mum wanted me, so, I did …. So, I became a butcher.

00:18:53

Michael: Really?

Ron: Yea …. and it was all right …. it came, you see, I was delivering newspapers as well as a lot of young men were, she said …. and …. I must have still been at this college because he came to me once and he said, “Being my son in law’s just bought a business, a butcher’s business ….”,he said, “in Denton in Thornley Park”, he said, “Would you like to go and work for him?”

And I said, “Well I don’t mind” and I thought I don’t mind and, so, so, I went from there, John Garner’s the name. There were four brothers, and all had a shop and I went for John. He turned out to be the nicest of the lot, he was very nice.

The one thing that sticks in my mind then was that …. Betty, who was his wife, she used to cook my meals as well as …. every day, and I thought then “Gosh this is so delicious this”. That was because we were probably not getting as good as what the butcher’s wife was cooking …. and so I often thought that …. so, I did that. Yes, he was a nice man, he’s still alive apparently and he’d be ninety now and a lovely person.

And …. but most people you meet are nice …. that’s what my wife said. Before we’ve walked through Ashton and we’d talk to somebody we know because there was always someone we knew …. and she said …. and she’d …. oh …. and I’d say to her me wife …. you know we’d talk …. they’d talk for a while the two women and I said …. and then we’d separate our ways and see them another time I suppose …. and I said, “She was very nice” …. and she said …. my wife said one weekend, “There’s one thing I’d like you to remember….” She said, “Everybody’s nice ….” and she said, “You’ll find that”, she said, “that they are …. they are lovely people …. mostly.” And she said, “If they’re not nice, they have had something happen in their life that’s made them what they are”.

Michael: That’s very wise, I think, yes, I am sure that’s true.

Ron: Yes, it is very wise isn’t it. So that was a nice experience.

Michael: Tell me …. how did you meet your wife?”

Ron: How did I meet my wife? Well, I was working at a butchers at the time …. John Garner, and John Garner and the local doctor were quite friendly …. and so, and then when you wanted stitches you did go to your local doctor ….

So, I went …. I went to this Doctor Watts, and I believe is still alive in Denton, and …. when I cut myself …. I used to have the vapours …. and the doctor said “Oh, what you gone….” My wife was a …. got a job as a children’s nurse …. and so …. and she did various other jobs then …. she lived in Ireland at the time and then anyhow ….

So, anyhow she was working as a children’s nurse at the doctor’s and I cut myself and he said “You’ve gone an odd colour.” This was the doctor …. when he was doing some stitches. “Yes, I always do, I’m not bothered about stitching but I do go an odd colour” ….

He said “Right, Anne” …. He shouted Anne and she came scurrying in from another room because it’s a big Victorian house which she lived in …. It was the type of house we used to live in ourselves, you know  and …. she came scurrying in and he said “This lad, he’s got the vapours. He’s gone very pale, get him a tot of whisky.”

So, she did. She went to the kitchen poured some whisky. You don’t get it now do you ….

Michael: No …. [both laughing]

Ron: But …. He was a character, very nice man but …. a reputation for the ladies. He was very good looking and …. I’ve got a photograph of him somewhere, and …. he paid for our wedding …. and him and the chap I worked for did, he did, and the ‘do’ or whatever you call it and so, you know there were lots of kind people around.

Michael: What year was that? What year did you get married?

Ron: The year I was married? 1952.

Michael: 1952 ….

Ron: Yes, actually I got married in my uniform because I didn’t have the money for a suit so, I was married in my uniform ….

Michael: Why not?

Ron: Why not, no, I had a stripe ….

Michael: And you were with the military police?

Ron: Yes ….

Michael: Was that attached to any particular regiment or was it a separate regiment?

Ron: It was …. I was attached to different units sort of thing. I was in the …. then …. So, we went to Egypt and then …. sorted out from there about twenty of us I suppose to which unit we were going to go in. I was very, very lucky in a lot of ways because …. we were put into this unit where there was only, there was only 20 in it and …. of young men and so we went there …. and so …. that was another …. good luck …. never did any guard duty or anything like that and that was part of the job of military police. I didn’t do any guards, at all. So yes, I was very…

Michael: You had to keep the peace, I guess ….

Ron: Pardon?

Michael: You had to keep the peace ….

Ron: Keep?

Michael: Yes, as in make sure other people behaved themselves?

Ron: Well, we didn’t really do that. We didn’t go on any sort of patrols keeping …. the soldiers, you know, the privates or whatever …. in order or whatever. We, we just our own …. we had our own bar …. It had been built by the …. Italians during the War when they were prisoners …. they built all these different units, office units …. That was part of the job as prisoners ….

So, they built all these different units …. and there was probably about thirty of those different, sort of units …. and …. So, so, we were …. we got that …. so, I got a job there …. all we did was walk down to the… we were stationed inside …. being military police, twenty of us, we were stationed inside those units and the office workers, and you’d see some of them arriving in the sunshine and all the rest of it with rolled up umbrellas because they been in married quarters outside …. and so …. so, they …. we’d do that and so they’d stay in there overnight and of course in the office part, there was some like …. now …. this was sort of fifty miles from the sea, we had a unit of WRNS …. in …. white uniforms and the rest of it, come to us because we had a bar.

Michael: Ah, yes ….

Ron: And so, they came into our lot and …. I mean absolutely …. every night or whatever we had, yes so …. yes. that was quite interesting too. And we were just …. we were 50 miles from Suez and 50 miles from Port Said …. and it was sort of more or less desert then and we didn’t see hardly any Egyptians or soldiers …. We had one Egyptian who used to do something, I don’t know what it was, and we’d sit in the office there …. and there would be one Egyptian sit on the floor and he’d do odd jobs, I can’t think what he did now …. and leaning against the wall …. and …. like, if it was that far away where the fireplace is there [referring to his own living room] and, so, you know ….. That was a really interesting experience.

Michael: Did you do any tourist …. did you go and see the pyramids or anything like that whilst you were there?

Ron: We couldn’t …. we had a …. I’ve got a photograph somewhere, and our unit were very lucky, we had our own bar …. we had our own cook, he lived in Somerfield …. that was nice …. it was called …. lived in Yorkshire and so, he was the cook. Imagine, you know, they were just ordinary soldiers who had a cook, and this was of course …. it was …. you know, the Italians had built all these different units ….

In fact, one of them had built …. we had a stage in the …. there was a stage at the bottom …. and on it was around the walls was …. sort of paintings that the Italians had done …. and there was one was over the …. over the stage which was…. odd, there was a painting of a nude lady, one of the Italians had put there and our chappy who used to sit on the floor in the office used to walk over and stroke this …. [laughing] and …. yea, but unfortunately, we didn’t get to see many …. get to know many Egyptians. There was a local village where we’d call in occasionally and have a meal which was usually very nice to us.

Michael: Coming, coming back, right ….

Ron: Sorry ….

Michael: Coming back, right back to the First World War …. I believe your father was in the First World War ….

Ron: He was …. and we didn’t know what had happened, my father was always, sort of …. he was …. smoked a lot and that was because he’d been gassed, you know, during the war …. and they said that in those days if you smoked a lot, well you know, it would make your chest better.

So, he, he died when he was 48 and …. so, he …. worked for the railway; he was a porter on the railway. Yes, and …. but with him being a railway man who would get what they call privileged tickets and so, you would get several a year of those. So, if we go to …. on holiday, we’d go to Scarborough and places like that you see. So, we didn’t have a bad sort of childhood.

I know we lived in Longsight and it was a big Victorian house and …. my mother used to take a lodger. And, so we had a lodger once and he was a decorator and one day he said, could he decorate the front room? …. If you would like to call it that …. Could he decorate the front room to show his customers what he could do?

So, have I gone off track now do you think? And so, Mum said “Yes, of course you can.”

So, we had a brightly decorated front room, and, all different colours …. and all the rest of it, he was adamant, but he didn’t take any notice of anything like that.

Yes, so that was on St. John’s Road. But it was a nice house and a big house …. you know there’s a lot of these houses for sale then. It was very, it was very good.

Michael: Thinking back over your life, I mean you’ve enjoyed quite a long life ….

Ron: Yes ….

Michael: and you are 87 at the moment …. were there any highlights, were there any sort of things that were really happy moments that you can think of?

Ron: Well there was I suppose really the highlights were the War to an extent, but you didn’t take any notice of that. You heard the aircraft …. and there were aircraft guns put in various locations …. around the area so you’d hear those going off.

But …. and then …. I always liked art, you know, drawing things …. so, my mother used to always buy me these sort of comic books and then …. and then I would then sort of copy these and the …. pictures inside …. So, she’d buy me the little books, so I would draw copies of those. That was what art was the main thing.

Michael: Yes, I mean if you had your time again, would you have done things differently?

Ron: Well, yes, I …. I think I would have gone to the Art School …. because I said to my Mum, and she didn’t know …. you know …. she’d …. just an ordinary life, and …. I said there’s an Art School, I can go there …. or there’s a place at the …. the Art School there and …. then I could go to the …. working in a type of office …. The College of Commerce, it was called.

So, she said, “I think that we’ll go there, that would be a better job than drawing pictures.” …. which it wouldn’t have been …. it wouldn’t have been at all. And I …. went to the art school first …. No, I didn’t go there at all …. I went to the College of Commerce in Princess Street in Manchester.

Michael: Oh yes ….

Ron: Yes …. and …. it’s still there the building …. but …. So, that would have been very good and how to write properly. You know, like copperplate.

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: And …. I say, I was doing this once …. I was sat in the class on my own and these older girls came …. and they’d probably be about 16, I suppose …. and they were showing me how to write properly and all the rest of it. And that was …. that was very good.

But you see, I left there when John Garner said “Come along and work for me.”

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: My mother, you can’t blame anybody sort of working class or anything like that, thinking what they think is best for you. And she did. So, I went there, … and that was only because of …. their daughter …. married …. I don’t know whether she did work or not.

But they lived in Stockport Road in Longsight …. and …. Sean …. she eventually married him when he came out of the army and then … So …. so, they lived in …. they lived in Longsight, you know, for some time until they, until they got, until John came home, and they got married.

She …. just an afterthought …. she was very, very pretty, very nice looking …. Betty …. And …. one day, that was after I had left there, she was, she was taking the …. they had a couple of sons there, and her family …. and they were having a meal outside …. the War was over then …. and she was, she was carrying this meal outside and suddenly she collapsed and she was dead, she died.

Michael: Oh dear ….

Ron: Of course, she was only …. you know, she was …. she’d only be very young. It still happens with some people doesn’t it?

Michael: Oh, yes ….

Ron: Well that was, that was Betty .… but she was a damned good cook. And so, yes …..

Michael: So …. if we were to, I think we are coming probably towards the end now of the, of the interview. If you were to give advice, you have grandchildren, if you were to give advice to them ….

Ron: Yes ….

Michael: based on your knowledge of the world and what you’ve experienced, what would your advice be to them for a successful future?

Ron: Education …. Education …. first time and because …. it is the answer to everything.  I got my grandson. You saw, did you see him? No ….

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: Did you see my grandson? He’s quite well educated and knows what things are about. And, my daughter, have we got to my daughter yet? I suppose, and her daughter, wants to be a doctor.

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: She does, but she said she could change her mind …. she doesn’t know, but she knows how long it takes …. something like 5 years …. and she thinks that she could do that.

Michael: Yes ….

Ron: So, this is the sort of thing that, you know, you can, you can help out with.

Michael: Yes, yes ….

Ron: Financially, I suppose, of course, I mean, we haven’t got a lot of money or anything like that but …. I’d sell this house tomorrow for the kids if it was necessary for education, I would yes.

Michael: So, that really is no.1 as far as you are concerned, education ….

Ron: I think so. It doesn’t mean that education as such sort of …. but it means that .… you could get a decent education and …. know your way about, you talk to your friends and all the rest of it.

Michael: Ron, I think we are just about there, but I would like to thank you very much ….

Ron: Thank you very much ….

Michael: for giving us the opportunity to have a chat with you and to listen to your, your memories …. lovely …. thank you very much.

 

End of Transcription

 

Interview recorded by Michael Thompson, Hardy Productions UK, Manchester, for WarGen. Transcription by Michael Thompson, Zoe Sian and Tom Humphrey.

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